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Appendix  VL


to the honeycomb radiator c in front of the bonnet. The engine
is started by handle E, and the fly-wheel F connects it to the
* propeller' shaft G, the revolutions being decreased in the gear-
box H, and transmitted by mitre gear to the chain shaft j, from
which the road wheels are driven by chains K K. The foot brake
is shewn at N, and the main hand brakes at M M ; and the fly-wheel
clutch is released by a second pedal. Hand levers Q are for gear
changing and back brake, while P is the steering pillar.

Fig. 1039 shews a Live axle Car of smaller power. A double-
cylinder engine A. supported from the frame by cross girders,
turns a fly-wheel B and propeller shaft D as usual, the speed being
reduced by spur gear at c and by bevels at E in transmitting the
rotations to the live axle. Spring play is permitted by the two
Hooke's joints, and the compensating bevels F allow a differential
motion between the two parts of the hind axle when steering
round corners. Brakes are supplied at H, and a silencer j for the
exhaust gases.

Passing to the consideration of details, Fig. 1040 gives two
sections through the cylinders of a 10 H.P. double cylinder de
Dion engine (see rule p. 1002). The cylinders A are cast with
jacket B, and plugs c fill the vent holes. The whole is mounted
on an aluminium casing L, in which crank N rotates, the latter
being fed with oil from purnp j, and carrying fly-wheel p outside.
The clutch in this engine is located with the gear wheels. The
exhaust cam is revolved by the half-speed or * lay' shaft H, and
the valve lift adjusted at G. The inlet D is lifted automatically,
though many inlets are now opened by levers and earns, and the
oil and water are drained at M. The Cottereau engine, Fig. 1041,
is a type of a three-cylinder engine. Crank efforts are more
uniform, and the masses are balanced, but not the explosions,
though practically this is scarcely evident. Inlet and exhaust
valves are on opposite sides, lever-lifted from separate lay shafts
rotated from wheels D. The starting is effected by handle j, and
pullies E F drive an air fan G for cooling the radiator H.

Of Carburettors there are two main kinds, hand adjusted and
automatic, in great variety: the first being illustrated by the
Longueman, Fig. 920, p. 1005, and the second by the ingenious
CrossUy carburettor, Fig. 1042. Petrol enters float chamber E,